At the advent of the 21st centuries, the cemetery concept is usually to be redefined, in which cemeteries are gone just repositories for our dead. Consequently, an thriving of cemeteries are switching themselves into multipurpose facilities that funerals, interment, and cremation are merely among the services they provide for. The extension of hospitality services to take in tourism, photography, and unaggressive recreation (e. g. trotting, walking, reading, quiet contemplation) and can include weddings, baptisms, bar- though bat-mitzvahs, private parties, steam cleaning seminars, lectures, and much more floral shows, festivals, go specials, and concerts can be attributed to exact factors:
1. Culture - the feel of death has changed of the inevitable somber event perfectly into a celebration of life, sharing of treasured memories and opportunity to acquaint oneself with long lost visitors (though not without tears).
2. Environs - the construction of bright comforting climate-controlled mausoleums and creation of serene cheerful urn patio are challenging and supplanting out of paradigm that cemeteries i want to desolate, melancholy tombstone barred repositories. Many with their picturesque landscapes made from "magnificent trees, rolling mountain tops, glacial lakes, " rupees, gorgeous fountains, and even wildlife we all museums are "oases amid the sprawl of recent development. "
3. Historical - which consists of interred, and array re architecture and monuments, cemeteries supply a connection to the past and documentary considering that the evolution of human medical history, perceptions, and emotions as captured each changing architecture ranging day that simple, weathered 18th one particular hundred year tombstones, elaborate (sometimes eroding) nineteenth century mausoleums and toned angels and allegorical sizes and shapes, 20th century rediscovery of know-how simplicity, and 21st century photographic or possibly a interactive (audio and video playback on demand) tombstones.
4. Financial - To relieve its annual operating loss of $100, 000+ Oakwood Cemetery (Troy, NY) held a daffodil brunch from your Gardener Earl Memorial Chapel and Crematorium recognized for its Siena marble walls and spectacular Tiffany a glass, and an outdoor Renaissance Good enough featuring knights in shield. Other cemeteries are post same model and so are building state-of-the-art mausoleums to elevate efficiency.
5. Many older cemeteries especially those nearing the end a bunch of their active lives as these folks deplete their available burial space feel of reinvent themselves to help continued financial viability.
Currently, several schools now inside offer cemetery studies and/or go along with field trips to cemeteries with the objective of encouraging appreciation of the unique historical perspective regarding a specific place. As due to, Woodlawn Cemetery (Bronx, NY) to name a few offers "opportunities for grown people studying Art History, Listing Preservation, Landscape Architecture, Archival Details, American History, American Culture and other related fields. "
According to the most teacher, Cara Bafile, the annual class time at the cemetery has "become a looked forward to tradition [in which some beg to go back]. " School trips with their cemetery, though are certainly not new. Back in the early 1970s the most author's school field trips were to a local cemetery a good option every student was afraid of the largest graves even as we looked at the trade markers for style and so age (e. g. what are the oldest tombstone, who survived the longest, etc. ).
Though tourism to cemeteries feels morbid to some, from your words of Jessica Ravitch, Cemeteries keep tourists (CNN 2008), the program "can be inspirational [and] life-affirming... [It can be] the history and architecture lesson [because they are exceptional archives of human and architectural history - thus The Chicago Architecture Foundation offers guided tours of seven of the City's cemeteries charging between $5 to $30 per person], poor credit cultural appreciation course, a genealogical journey or possibly a source of relaxation. " Some even look at it as a service to individuals who cannot make the trip plus a reminder of the preciousness the particular life. "Many people find remarkable peace and solace in visiting cemeteries no matter if their own relatives are definitely not buried there, " promoted Janet Heywood, trustee for the reason that Association for Gravestone Studies inside article written by Benny Snyder, Tombstone journeys: Check out these mammoth cemeteries (USA Today, 10 Oct 2009).
Cemeteries also maintain a keyword rich link to the past in addition as enhance the learning experience as students and tourists stand right next to the resting places of famous people today who made significant contributions in their lifetimes. It is like they are right next to culture. Per Gary Laderman, Instructor of Religion at Emory Grounds (Atlanta, GA) and author of rest In Peace: A Cultural History of Death and the Funeral Home within 20th Century, it will be "chance for civic engagement to counter social isolation of over the years significant places. "
Furthermore, even though cemetery tourism is viewed as the new "in" thing as well as latest trend, it is virtually no new phenomenon. Many cemeteries something similar to Pè re Lachaise (Paris, France) (established throughout 1804 by Napoleon Bonaparte) in terms of Maria Callas, Modigliani, Fré dé ric Chopin, though Oscar Wilde, among others, are buried, and Laurel Huge batch (Philadelphia, PA) have attracted throngs of tourists for nearly two centuries. Green-Wood Cemetery (Brooklyn, NY) sooner or later attracted more than 500, 000 visitors per annum during the mid-to-late 1800s.
Key locations to tourists and photography lovers are tombstones, architecture, statues (e. g. weeping maidens, angels) mausoleums, and necropolises or possibly concerts, lectures, floral shows, and holiday specials to name a few.
While large Victorian-era cemeteries in addition to Laurel Hill and Green-Wood or possibly New Orleans' Lafayette Cemetery As well as. 1 and St. David Cemetery No. 1, which goes back to 1Photography School, (the latter two which consists of above ground tombs), 're top attractions, small cemeteries and graveyards don't seem to be without their own take interest in.
A quarterly newsletter, Tomb which includes a View that provides a nationwide set of cemetery tours is along with cemetery-centric tourists. It is typically subscribed to for $15 a year from P. O. Packet 24810, Lyndhurst, OH 44124.
Cemetery photograph, contrary to public faith, is mainstream and familiar theme. It is even profitable enough that many businesses specialize solely in cemetery photo digital portrait photography. Accordingly Northstar Gallery's agency reads they present "a collection of sensuous, fine art photos... of cemetery and memorial art worldwide [that explore and offer] poetry and comments [on] the historical aptitude of memorial and cemetery art in man's grapple with mortality, immortality, salvation, great loss and transcendence. "
Also, in keeping with tourism, cemetery photography (separate and dissimilar to post-mortem photography) dates with their medium's infancy. It may not be long after the daguerreotype most certainly been invented that photographers ensnared images of cemeteries. Southworth & Hawes, one of the famous daguerreotypist duo captured lowest seven images from Indy Auburn Cemetery (Cambridge, MA). By the 1860s with the introduction of stereoview, cemetery photography gained in popularity with Green-Wood Cemetery and its scenic views certainly favorite among photographers.
Passive recreational activities to become cemeteries date back over the century. During the Victorian-era (1837-1901), cemeteries were the main venue when not the only venue of a locale a chance to access passive recreational activities because so many urban areas had absolutely no arboretums, no parks, with out museums. At one point a large amount of visitors flocked to Laurel Hill its cemetery had to situation gate passes and cease Sunday visits to close family of the deceased.
Consistent when purchasing continued popularity of cemeteries for passive movements, Michael O'Hearn in Visit Montana. Auburn Cemetery writes, it "is a temporary retreat inside the urban bustle into a world of trees, birds, [chipmunks], rabbits and statuary. While appears unlikely, such places do exist... Mt. Auburn possesses the varied landscape, ponds and glens, hills and dells. The plantings and trees are so thick in places that surrounding above they resemble a forest. The monuments... show various styles and themes. " With its "winding roads and methods named after flowers appear trees" Mt. Auburn (founded in 1831 or perhaps the nation's first landscaped surfaces cemetery) defies connotations when using the stereotypical graveyard.
In thing, a November 2009 conscious from Executive Director James Sahd of Friends of energy Woodlawn Cemetery (founded 1863 on the moment Bronx, NY) states, "Woodlawn is an incredible resource for anyone... [It is much] more than the house of rest... [it is one of New York's greatest treasures - rich in irreplaceable architecture, history, culture, and natural wonders... Its 400 acres of rolling hills and monumental architecture invite you to step into a world outside of time. Around every corner is another amazing unexpected discovery. The entire landscape literally is a visual feast of graceful beauty. A Greek temple follows an obelisk, accompanied by the delicate statue of entwined lovers. Azalea bushes bloom under towering elms and graceful willows. Bird songs accompany the play of cottontail rabbits, and chipmunks. A stone bridge spans a peaceful lagoon, surrounded by elegant reminders of New York City's greatness."
Cemetery weddings expand and redefine the paradigm - "...unto death do us part" since death need no longer separate spouses who can be buried together at their wedding site.
As with tourism, even though cemetery weddings are gaining wider acceptance and being held at more venues, they are not a new phenomenon. Since 1928 more than 60,000 weddings have been performed at Forest Lawn Cemetery (Los Angeles, CA) alone.
When Lisa Rigby was requested to photograph Kate's and Daniel's wedding at Mount Auburn Cemetery, she was, in her words, "so excited." "Growing up, I spent so much time in a beautiful, rambling, landscaped cemetery near our house. For us kids the cemetery wasn't some spooky forbidden place. It was where we rode bikes in the summer and built snowmen in the winter. It was where we walked my cocker spaniel, ran and played, and sat to talk with friends for hours on end... I always thought it was sad that so many people were afraid of the cemetery," she wrote on August 21, 2009 in a blog entry about Kate's and Daniel's wedding (all of which the author can identify with having grown up with my brother next to a small historic cemetery for the first seven years of my life in which the cemetery was the setting for many games of chase and hide-and-seek with the neighborhood kids and a lot safer than the parking lot next door).
At the same time, Kate wrote, "[We] were married at Mount Auburn Cemetery... I know it may seem like an odd choice for a wedding, but it's a beautiful place, our favorite in Cambridge. When we walk through it, I find it moving to think about all of the lives that are commemorated there."
When Sheryl and Kurt married in 1990 at Wisconsin Memorial Park's Chapel of Chimes with its church-like setting, vaulted ceilings, stained glass windows, and wall art depicting the Last Supper that serves as part mausoleum and part museum, the groom thought it "perfectly normal and pretty neat" while the bride added, "our wedding was just like any other wedding" according to an account written by William J. Lizdas in Married in a cemetery? Some adore the idea (JS Online, 20 May 2009).
With increasing numbers of cemeteries opening their gates to weddings, Spring Grove Cemetery's (Cincinnati, OH) website reads, "Congratulations on your upcoming nuptials... We offer a variety of unique locations for you to hold your ceremony. The Norman Chapel... built in 1880 boasts several beautiful stained glass windows... The Garden Courtyard... located in the front area of the cemetery/arboretum... is planted with Hybrid Tea Roses, as well as other colorful annual flowers."
Symbolism and Changing Perceptions:
Cemeteries are replete with symbolism (which provide a means of dealing with mortality and providing a semblance of control over death), carvings and epitaphs (used to shed light on the deceased whom have been reduced to mere names (when they still exist on weathered tombstones) (e.g. "Here lies the remains of Hannah, the Wife of Solomon Gedney, who dep: this life April 1788 Aged 37 Yrs." and "Stop Reader Eer the Passeth this stone nor regardless be told that near its Bass (sic) lies deposited the remains of Mary Dixon, Wife of John Dixon, a woman whose reputation was spotless and whose life was spent in the practice of virtue having by her unshaken fortitude and native independence of Soul commanded the esteem of all who knew her. She departed this life August 12th 1811 aged 53 years" etched on tombstones in Eleazor Gedney Burial Ground, Mamaroneck, NY) and the values, hopes (e.g. "She is not dead, the child of our affection - But has gone to realms above" etched on a tombstone for Paulina, daughter of Charles and Sarah Ann Gedney who died on May 9, 1856 at 5 Years, 1 Month, and 11 Days also at Eleazor Gedney Burial Ground, Mamaroneck, NY) and beliefs of past eras), both of which arose with a desire to remember the dead, and have changed with the ages as social perceptions and ways of coping have evolved.
For example, the skull and bones that came to depict death for their use on tombstones in 18th century Spanish cemeteries were replaced by cherub heads by the mid 1800s as the concept of death became socially less terrifying and the weeping willow used to portray sorrow and mourning during the 18th century to mid 19th century were supplanted by other plants - especially lilies to shed a more positive light on death while symbolizing the resurrection and afterlife.
Common Victorian-era symbols that have gradually disappeared from use based on changing social tenets and demographics are lamenting and weeping women (since 19th century norms precluded men from showing emotion; consequently memorials utilizing men depicted them in a prominent light), the use of children and cherubs utilized to invoke sadness at the loss of a child, which had been common during those times, and prevalence of urn vessels (since an urn represented the body as a container that held the soul) and sometimes, though to a significantly lesser extent, other images draped with a pall (clothe used to cover a coffin).
Other symbols found in Victorian-era cemeteries are gates (symbol of the gates of Heaven), Celtic crosses (symbol of the four directions on a compass and mind, body, heart, and soul), birds in flight (symbol of the soul borne aloft), mourning doves (symbol of lamentation and even the Holy Spirit), wreathes (symbol of glory), crosses (symbol of the resurrection), and Star of David (symbol of redemption and of the Jewish people).
Angels are still used to "soften the finality of death" and to provide comfort. Some sit at each side of a grave with "heads bowed, as if guarding the bodies of departed souls" to ease the gloom of subterranean tombs.
Generally, today's symbolism no longer views death as an inevitable finality in which our mortality is lamented but rather as a new beginning because of the hope of the afterlife to come. As a result, angels and other allegorical figures often point skyward as a reminder that the deceased lives in Heaven and tombstones often portray biblical figures such as Jesus (the ultimate symbol of resurrection), Mary, Joseph and biblical scenes such as The Last Supper, the Pieta, and Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane. Other graves are marked by tombstones or ground markers that include sculpted images, etched or embossed photographs, with some high-tech tombstones consisting of even audio (of the deceased speaking) or video (of important moments of a deceased's life) played upon demand.
Consistent with changing cemetery symbolism, mausolea (which date back to 353 BC when Queen Artemisia II built the world's most splendid tomb as a tribute to her late husband, King Mausolus of Caria) have also evolved through the ages from dark, gloomy, forbidden places that held the remains of prominent families and a few members of the public (when space was available) to multi-story edifices built specifically for the public with bright, ambient décor designed to appeal to the living.
Prior to the advent of new mausolea that began in the early 20th century, famous Greeks and Romans built their own mausolea for centuries until the rise of Christianity, in which only saints were permitted to have monuments (typically churches) built at their graves. However, commencing in the 19th century, wealthy Americans revived the practice and even though such 19th and early 20th century mausolea appeared impressive on the outside, they often consisted of dark, narrow, tiny spaces that in the words of Jack Naudi, New mausoleum keep living in mind (Post-Dispatch, November 6, 2003) were "cold and uninviting to the living."
However, with the new generation of mausolea (with built in skylights, stained-glass windows, plush furniture, and cheery brightness) that consist of family crypts, single crypts, niches, and urn cabinets (the latter two for cremated remains), above ground entombment, which has been popular in Europe for centuries and a necessity for New Orleans cemeteries because of their location below sea level, is becoming increasingly popular in the United States and parts of Asia. Thus these new mausolea are adding to the cemetery experience because of their appealing nature and profit margins because of their efficiency of space.
With the redefining of the cemetery concept aimed at maximizing their appeal and services to the living, cemeteries are no longer mere repositories for the dead. Instead they are multipurpose facilities that are connected to the communities they serve, bringing people together beyond the constraints of death while promising an unforgettable, comforting experience to all who absorb their striking scenery, view their rich history and architecture, research genealogy and changing social perceptions through tourism, photography, and passive recreation, and of course remember their beloved dead. At the same time, they are providing serene, tasteful resting places for the deceased that even the living can look forward to when our inevitable day arrives.
20 Notable Cemeteries:
1. Arlington National Park - Arlington, VA, USA
2. Bonaventure Cemetery - Savannah, GA, USA
3. Crown Hill Cemetery - Indianapolis, IN, USA
4. Forest Lawn Cemetery - Los Angeles, CA, USA
5. Green-Wood Cemetery - Brooklyn, NY, USA
6. Lafayette Cemetery No. 1 - New Orleans, LA, USA
7. Lake View Cemetery - Cleveland, OH, USA
8. Laurel Hill Cemetery - Philadelphia, USA
9. Montparnasse Cemetery - Paris, France
10. Monumental Cemetery - Milan, Italy
11. Mount Auburn Cemetery - Cambridge, MA
12. Mount Hope Cemetery - Rochester, NY
13. Novodevichye Cemetery - Moscow, Russia
14. Oakland Cemetery - Atlanta, GA, USA
15. Old Granary Burying Ground - Boston, MA, USA
16. Père Lachaise Cemetery - Paris, France
17. Pierce Brothers Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery - Los Angeles, CA, USA
18. St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 - New Orleans, LA, USA
19. Steglieno Cemetery - Genoa, Italy
20. Woodlawn Cemetery - Bronx, NY, USA
 Paul Lukas. Final Destinations Why Sightseers regard cemetery tours as a worthwhile, ahem, undertaking. CNN Money.com. 1 May 2000. 31 October 2009. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/moneymag_archive/2000/05/01/278219/index.htm
 Ed Snyder. The Afterlife Referenced in Cemetery Symbolism (Part 1). 22 May 2006. 5 November 2009. http://www.stoneangels.net/?p=29